Aqueous (AQ) varnish

A thin, liquid protective coating, either gloss or satin, that is applied to the product. It adds protection and enhances the appearance of the product. Aqueous varnish coating is applied to all coated papers and boards heavier than 128gsm and all 100% recycled stock heavier than 200gsm.


The finishing department, which performs operations on the printed product after it has been printed. The bindery operations are as follows: Folding, Binding, Celloglazing, Numbering, Perforating, Scoring, Stitching, Drilling and Die Cutting.


Different methods used to secure loose pages in a book is called binding. Saddle stitch is an example of binding.


Printed colours that extend to the very edge of a page require the image area to extend past the finished trim size. To cut the job to its actual size the processor has to make sure the job gets printed with 2mm bleed. For example if the job is a business card (90x55mm) the file size with bleed would be (94x59mm).


An outline around graphics, text or edge of a sheet.


The primary colours used in 4 colour printing. CMYK are used to reproduce full colour on the printed sheet. CMYK is also called PROCESS COLOUR.

Colour proof / Digital proof

An image, created using a digital process by using colour inks. Showing a representaion of what the final printed product will look like. Colour proofs within Factory Direct Print are called Digital proofs and are a 80%-85% match with the final product.

Consecutive numbering

Numbering a form, or a series of printed material where the number changes sequentially from one to another. For example, if the first sheet has the number 1001, the second will get 1002, the third would be 1003 and so on.

Die cutting

A specific shape like circle, star, etc (any designs that cannot be done by a straight cut) which is cut by a metal blade.

Direct mail

Another name for advertising mail sent to targeted markets. It can be any mail class, but it is usually Standard Mail.

Dots per inch

A measurement of resolution of input, output and display devices. 300 dpi means that when printed, each square inch of your image will contain 90,000 pixels (dots), the higher the dpi (the more pixels per inch) the more crisp the printed image will be. Our electronic (digital files) have to have a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Anything less than that is considered as low resolution and may appear blurry when printed.


Operations to a document after it has been printed. The finishing operations could include bindery work such as, folding, trimming, binding, die cutting, inserting or any post press process that must be completed.

Finished size / trim size

The size of a printed product after all production operations have been completed.

Flat size

The size of a printed product after printing and trimming but before any finishing operations that affect its size, such as folding.


The process of bending printed sheets in a specific area. Folding is one of our popular bindery jobs.


A fold where a three panel piece has both side sections folded inward, one on top of the other each section is approximately 1/3 the length of the piece. Also known as a C fold or Tri fold.


A paper fold represented by back and forth folds into three panels.

Gloss paper

Paper with a gloss finish is usually used for higher quality printing. Examples are 150gsm gloss text and 250gsm gloss cover.


A spot on a printed sheet that appears as a small white circle with ink in the center, caused by particles such as dirt, dust, or bits of paper.


A letter, card, or similar item placed inside another mail piece (host piece).

Line screen

A transparent screen which has been etched with fine lines. It is used to convert a picture or photograph into a halftone dot pattern so that can be printed.

Make ready

The process of setting up and adjusting a printing press for a particular ink, paper and specifications prior to printing. This includes adjusting the infeed, grippers and guides, adjusting ink for proper coverage, registering copy, and matching the printed piece with the proof to be sure everything is correct. Also referred to as set up.


The non-printed areas around the image area of a page.

Offset printing

The transfer of an inked image from a plate to a blanket cylinder, which in turn transfers the image to the printing material as it passes between the blanket and the impression cylinder and pressure is applied. Also referred to as offset lithography.

Out of register / Off register

When an image is not printing in the exact location that it is suppose to. When printing more than one colour, if the colours do not line up properly, they are out of register.


Sending information from a computer to a printing device to produce a printed page is called output.

Pantone matching system (PMS)

A registered name for an ink colour matching system used to compare, match and identify specific colours. To do so we use a pantone book. It contains pantone colours with their closest CMYK values.

Paper grain

The direction in which the fibers line up during the manufacturing process. It is easier to fold, bend, or tear the paper along the same direction of the fibers. Cut sheet laser printers generally use long grain paper in which the grain runs parallel to the long side of the paper, resulting in better performance through the laser printer.


Creating a series of holes so that the paper can be torn more easily along the line that is formed. Postage stamps and tear-off cards are common products that require perforation.


The smallest unit of a digitized image created by a digital device, such as a computer, camera, or scanner. Pixel is short for “picture element.” The more pixels per inch the better the resolution. On computer monitors, the display is divided into rows and columns containing thousands or millions of pixels. Each pixel is composed of three dots representing the three colour channels of red, green, and blue light that are necessary for creating a colour image on computer monitors and television screens. Because of their small size, the pixels appear to merge, simulating a continuous tone image, but when magnified they appear to be tiny square blocks of light.


A metal or paper light-sensitive sheet that holds an image that has been photographically produced. During the printing process, the image area picks up ink, which is then transferred to a blanket and then to paper.


A copy of the artwork representing the finished product. It is used for review and approval. Here at Factory Direct Print we offer two types of proof.

1. PDF proof. PDF proof is an electronic proof supplied via email.

2. Digital Proof. Is a printed proof, which also called hard copy proof it is a 80%-85% match with the final printed product and delivered to the customer to approve before the job is printed.


The measurement of output quality expressed in pixels (dots) per inch on a computer monitor or dots per inch on printed media. For example, a monitor displaying a resolution of 800 by 600 refers to a screen capable of displaying 800 pixels in each of 600 lines, which translates into a total of 480,000 pixels displayed on the screen. When referring to printed media, a 300 dpi (dots per inch) printer for example, is capable of outputting 300 dots in a one-inch line, which means that it has the ability of printing 90,000 distinct dots per square inch (300 x 300).


The additive primary colours, red, green and blue, used to display colour in video monitors. Printing with a file in RGB colour mode will produce a washed out appearance. Our Prepress workflow automatically converts RBG files to the required CMYK colour mode using the FOGRA39L profile.

Round cornering

Using a machine to die cut the corners of forms, cards and books to create a rounded corner.

Saddle stitching

The method of binding the pages of a section where the folded pages are stitched through the fold from the outside, using a wire staple (stapling).


A crease applied, in a straight line, to a sheet of paper to allow it to fold easier and more accurately.

Spot UV

Coating paper only in specific areas as opposed to all over coating. In a Spot UV job, the job gets a UV coating in only specific areas.


The process of cutting the product to its finished size. The excess that is cut off is also referred to as the trim.

Work and turn

A printing method where different pages are assembled so that they are on one plate. One side is printed and then the sheet is turned over so that you are using the same gripper edge and then the second side is printed. The product is then cut apart to make two finished items.